REVIEW OF JOHN E TRENT, MODERNIZING THE UNITED NATIONS SYSTEM: CIVIL SOCIETY’S ROLE IN MOVING FROM INTENATIONAL RELATIONS TO GLOBAL GOVERNANCE
(Opladen, Germany: Barbara Budrich Publishers, 2007, 285 pp.)
Professor John Trent of the Department of Political Science, University of Ottawa, Canada sets out clearly the framework of this important study of the possible reforms of the United Nations. “Time and again, our international organizations have proven they cannot reform themselves. The reasons are manifold. There is no political will among their members. Due to built-in interests and habits, transformation of human institutions is always long and arduous. Nation-states concentrate on their own national interests. Politicians and diplomats are so busy managing the system that they have little time to think about its reform. Because of a lack of information, most citizens in most countries are unaware of the nature of international institutions and politics, and therefore feel uninvolved and incapable of influencing the global future…The world is strewn with the skeletons of noble ideas for ‘perpetual peace’ dating from the time of Emmanuel Kant in the 1790s. Everyone has his pet ideas about specific reforms.” As the long-time U.N. environmentalist Maurice Strong has said “These reform studies and recommendations have become something of an industry, and the fact that actual reforms have thus far been minimal is not for a lack of ideas but for lack of political will and a sufficient degree of consensus among member governments.”
Trent provides a useful section on the main areas of U.N. reform which have been proposed by different study groups starting with the Commission on Global Governance and its 1995 report Our Global Neighbourhood as well as many more recent studies. Websites are given for each study so that the specific recommendations may be analysed. As Trent says of this list “The above table provides a good sample of the efforts to reform and innovate the international institutional framework, but it does not include the many individual scholars, activists and practitioners who contribute to the growing reform movement. It is useful to note that some prominent individuals have dedicated a lot of energy to the reform agenda, either through scholarly contributions or advocacy.”
The book begins with an analysis of the reforms carried out and proposed by the then Secretary-General Kofi Annan whom Trent calls ‘the Reforming Secretary-General’. As Kofi Annan said in his 2003 Report to the General Assembly “We can no longer take for granted that our multilateral institutions are strong enough to cope with all the challenges facing them. I suggest in my conclusions that some of the institutions may be in need of radical reform.”
Kofi Annan was the only U.N. Secretary-General to have spent his whole career within the U.N. system, first in Geneva and later in New York. He knew well what changes he could make on his own authority as Secretary-General and those changes for which he would need larger intellectual consensus which he tried to develop with the creation of High Level Panels of largely retired government leaders and diplomats such as the High Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change and a High Level Panel on Civil Society. Lastly, there were the reforms that required a vote of governments within the General Assembly such as the transformation of the Commission on Human Rights which was a sub-body of the Economic and Social Council into the Human Rights Council so that it now ranks on the official U.N. structure chart at the same level as the Security Council and the Economic and Social Council. By writing new rules of procedure for the Human Rights Council, the governments were able to destroy all the advances that non-governmental organizations (NGOs) had made over the years in the Commission on Human Rights and that NGOs were able to justify by precedent. “If it is done once, we want to be able to continue doing it.”
Government representatives exist to limit the scope and actions of the representatives of NGOs, and I fear that any U.N. “reforms” will find ways to push NGO representatives even further into the shadows. I believe that advances will come also by precedent-making decisions such as the current use of force by U.N. troops in the Ivory Coast. If there, why not in the Democratic Republic of Congo? If there were a U.N. commission set up to consider the use of force by U.N. troops, there would be no decision that would permit U.N. helicopters to fire on troops guarding Laurent Gbagbo’s house.
Very little came from the proposals for reform that arose from the High Level Panels, and they had little impact on the policy of NGOs.
If governments have no desire for structural reforms (other than to weaken NGOs which they can do in other ways), to whom can we turn to transform our international institutions? Trent replies “Only one group has the competence and resources to influence government and public opinion both at the national and international levels. This immense group is composed of the large transnational associations and the rest of civil society. They have demonstrated that they have the capabilities, the specialized knowledge, and the altruistic reputation to lead governments and the public on the long complex journey to global transformation. They have the potential but not yet the organizational will and muscle to do the task. But it is not just its new structural presence on the international scene that presupposes a transformational role for civil society. History shows us that it was leading citizens and groups, not governments, who were primarily responsible for the origin and evolution of international organizations. Governments react to threats and opportunities. Civil society entrepreneurs act on foresight and principle … Not only have international non-governmental organizations become legitimate, recognized international actors, but the current confluence of the global system opens up opportunities for influence at the multiple locales and levels of global governance (defined as various forms of diverse and overlapping authorities in the world that have legitimacy in their field of endeavour so that their decisions are accepted and carried out.) Will civil society entrepreneurs seize the opportunity? Will they mobilize public opinion to oppose international domination by the few and seek more representative global institutions and governance?”
As Sidney Tarrow points out in his The New Transnational Activism (2005) “Even as they make transnational claims, these activists draw on the resources, networks, and opportunities of the societies in which they live. Their most interesting characteristics is how they connect the local and the global. In today’s world we can no longer draw a sharp line between domestic and international politics…Acting collectively requires activists to marshal resources, become aware and seize opportunities, frame their demands in ways that enable them to join with others, and identify common targets.”
Tarrow stresses the importance of what he calls ‘campaign coalitions’ which may be the wave of the transnational future. “ Their focus on a specific policy issue, their minimal institutionalization, their capacity to shift venues in response to changing opportunities and threats, and their ability to make short-term tactical alliances according to the current focus on interest.”
Trent adds that “In such a sprawling world the advantage goes to those who can organize widespread networks. Leadership has fallen to international non-governmental organizations that have the knowledge, time and money to experiment and the latitude to operate outside the interests of single countries and to develop long-term strategies. The power base of these global associations and more generally of civil society is their specialized information, technical expertise, telecommunications, networks and relative ease of public participation and access.”
Yet as Maurice Strong has pointed out “Civil society is therefore much more diverse and fragmented than governments and international organizations. This is, of course, one of its virtues, but it leads to difficulty in providing for the participation of civil society in the official processes of governance. Many civil society groups and organizations hold common positions on particular issues, but it is seldom feasible for them to present a united front. Sometimes the very number of small and fragmented organizations inhibits agreement on common positions.”
As Trent concludes “It is probably true that the world needs far-sighted visionaries who can set the agenda for the future. But we also need to find a way to bring the various sorts of reformers together so that differences can be debated and perhaps overcome, and effective paths to the future elaborated.”
*Rene Wadlow, Representative to the United Nations, Geneva, Association of World Citizens
THE HOPE FOR INTEGRATING BRITISH MUSLIMS: AN INTERVIEW WITH DR. ATIF IMTIAZ
This review article was written for the Common Ground News Service (CGNew: http://www.commongroundnews.org), who distributed it February 22 2011, with permission granted for publication.
Dr. (S. M.) Atif Imtiaz recently published Wandering Lonely in a Crowd: Reflections on the Muslim Condition in the West, a collection of talks and essays examining the lives and conditions of British Muslims over the last decade. The book balances theory and personal experience and offers insights for Muslims and non-Muslims alike.
Imtiaz, who holds a Ph.D. in Social Psychology from the London School of Economics, has worked in Bradford on equality and diversity for the National Health Service and is currently Academic Director at the Cambridge Muslim College. I spoke to him recently about his book and about the state of Muslims in the UK today.
The work examines how British Muslims experienced the George W. Bush era, which you refer to as the “post-9/11 period”. Are we still living in post-9/11 Britain and, if so, how should we understand the significance of the 7 July 2005 bombings in London that killed 52 people and injured hundreds more?
Atif Imtiaz: The London bombings had a profound impact on the Muslim community. People were hoping that there would not be a terrorist attack, but the bombings have made the Muslim community take the terrorist threat within Britain much more seriously. I think we are moving beyond the post-9/11 era. The major turning point was the election of US President Barack Obama. He stood and was elected as a “change” candidate and though there is still some way to go, progress is being made, albeit slowly.
Can UK Muslims exist independently of the international politics you analyse? How might the relationship between world engagement and local concerns differ for Muslims and non-Muslims in Britain?
Imtiaz: It is very difficult for UK Muslims to exist independently of international politics. There is a greater sense of internationalism amongst UK Muslims than [non-Muslims] in Britain because of a greater sense of universality within [Islam’s teachings]. But we should seek to determine our own manner of political engagement and not have it defined for us by external actors or events. However, there is also a strong feeling of local identity [for UK Muslims], without any sense of contradiction [with their faith], which I think is a good thing.
An autobiographical episode in your book reflects the difficulty for Muslim intellectuals to engage and include the UK Muslim community. You describe how, when you try to discuss community relations with a group of Muslim youths from Bradford, they ”seemed to be present but distant. After a while, it became clear that they didn’t understand some of the words I was using, not just the jargon, but sometimes just longer words. They were interested in our conversation, but couldn’t participate.”
Is your blog an attempt to address such alienation, and how else can this challenge be overcome effectively?
Imtiaz: This is a very big challenge and is mostly due to declining educational standards in general, and within the Muslim population in particular. It can only be improved through a massive change in culture towards education. The blog was set up to provide a space to challenge the narrative that has begun to develop in the UK around the Muslim presence – a narrative that is mainly negative and stigmatising. It requires a response and my blog is an attempt to provide that response.
Why has the moderate majority of British Muslims been unable to establish a more strongly unified platform of high profile figures in opposition to extremist personalities like Abu Hamza, a Muslim cleric who preaches violence?
Imtiaz: I think they have – the MINAB (Mosques and Imams National Advisory Board) is an example. But the media prefers drama and hyperbole to reasonableness and common sense.
The tabloids are blamed for reproducing, rather than challenging, misconceptions about Islam. You praise the more accurate commentary of magazines like emel, yet the reach of such journalism is predominantly limited to a Muslim audience. Is this the result of exclusion in the mainstream or self-segregation?
Imtiaz: This is the result of exclusion in large parts of the mainstream. As I suggest in the book, ”to integrate” is a passive verb, not an active one. One can only ask to be integrated. It is up to others, those who represent the mainstream, to integrate those who are not like them. Almost ten years after September 11 we can see that this is taking a long time. This is not because Muslims are not seeking (indeed demanding) inclusion. Rather, it is because in many cases they simply aren’t being let in. That is why, as my title suggests, though we may be part of society, there is a certain sense of alienation that accompanies ”being together”.
*Thomas McGee is a freelance journalist working in London and the Middle East.
Global Exchange Energy Program Director, Antonia Juhasz, Black Tide: the Devastating Impact of the Gulf Oil Spill, is published by Wiley. For more information go to: http://salsa.democracyinaction.org/dia/track.jsp?v=2&c=U8e8RpoI6gAHi2A3SKqOhNV%2FqPDSavE5.
World Watch Institute, State of the World 2011: Innovations that Nourish the Planet is accompanied by informational materials including briefing documents, summaries, an innovations database, videos, and podcasts, all available at www.NourishingthePlanet.org.
Books form South End Press include: Vandana Shiva, Staying Alive: Women, Ecology and Development (256 pp. for $16.00); and Vandana Shiva, Soil Not Oil: Environmental Justice in an Age of Climate Crisis (160 pp. for $15), all from South End Press: http://www.southendpress.org/2010/items/87934.
United States Institute of Peace Press books include, In-Tack Hyun and Miranda Schreurs, eds., The Environmental dimensions of Asian Security: Conflict and Cooperation over Energy, Resources and Pollution; and William Zartman, Ed., Peacemaking in International Conflicts: Methods and Techniques; and William J. Long, Pandemics and Peace: Public Health Cooperation in Zones of Conflict, are available from USIP Press: http://bookstore.usip.org/index.aspx.
Lynne Rienner books on peace processes and conflict resolution include: the Annual Review of Global Peace Operations, 2010 (377 pp. for $27.50 paper, $49.95 cloth); Paul F. Diehl and Daniel Druckman, Evaluating Peace Operations (238 pp. for $29.95 paper, $59.95 cloth); Scott Seward Smith, Afghanistan’s Troubled Transition: Politics and Peacekeeping, an the 2004 Presidential Election (310 pp. for $35 cloth); Adekeye Abedajo, UN Peacekeeping in Africa: From the Suez Crisis to the Sudan Conflicts (240 pp. for $22 paper, $55 cloth); Thania Paffenholz, Ed., Civil Society and Peacebuilding: A Critical Assessment (511 pp. for $26.50 paper, $69.95 cloth); Necla Tschirgi, Michel S. Lund, and Francesco Mancini, Eds., Security and Development: Searching for Critical Connections (449 pp. for $26.50 paper, $65 cloth); Sasbo Ripilolski, Conflict in Macedonia: Exploring a Paradox in the Former Yugoslavia (290 pp. for $35 cloth); Ian S. Spears, Civil War in African States: the Search for Security (281 pp. for $35 cloth); and James Cockayne, with Emily Speers Mears, Iveta Cherneva, Alison Gurin, Sheila Oviedo and Dylan Yaeger, Beyond Market Forces: Regulating the Global Security Industry (333 pp. paper, for $28.50), all from Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1800 30 St., Suite 314, Boulder, CO 80301, (303)444-6684, email@example.com, www. rienner.com.
John R. Ballard, Triumph of Self-Determination: Operation Stabilize and United Nations Peacekeeping in East Timor is published by Praeger security International, Westport, CT.
The Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue (HD Centre) offers a number of publications, including: Katia Papagianni, Head of the HD Centre’s Mediation Support Programme, Can mediation transform societies? Meredith Preston McGhie and E. Njoki Wamai, Beyond Numbers – Women’s participation in the Kenya National Dialogue and Reconciliation, (reflects on the Kenya dialogue process and looks beyond statistics to unpack the true role of women in the process. The authors reflect on how this experience can offer lessons for other peace processes in their efforts to more effectively include women’s voices and reflect gender concerns); Christine Belle & Catherine O’Rourke, UN Security Council 1325 and Peace Negotiations and Agreements an abridged and practitioner-focused version of a lengthier piece published in October 2010); Katia Papagianni, “Can mediation transform societies?;” Sihnag 2010 Review (provides an overview of the activities undertaken as part of the Armed Violence Reduction Initiative (AVRI), in Sulu, Mindanao, in 2010); “Meeting report – Asian Mediation Retreat 2010”; Rita Manchanda, “Nepali Women seize the new political dawn: Resisting marginalisation after ten years of war; Kumudini Samuel, “The importance of autonomy: Women and the Sri Lankan Peace Negotiations”; “Women at the Indonesian peace table: Enhancing the contributions of women to conflict resolution”; “Summary report – Women at the Peace Table Asia Pacific experts meeting”; “Annotated literature review on conflict management in Indonesia”; and” Conflict.” All are available from: Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue: http://www.hdcentre.org/publications, in many cases as pdf files.
Haymarket Books recent offerings include: Omar Barghouti, Boycott, Divestment, Sanctions: The Global Struggle for Palestinian Rights ($16.00 paper); Jeffery Webber, ($17 Paper); Noam Chomsky and Ilan Pappe, Frank Barat, Ed., Gaza in Crisis: Reflections on Israel’s War Against the Palestinians ($16 paper); and Moustafa Bayoumi, Ed., Midnight on the Mavi Marmara: The Attack on the Gaza Freedom Flotilla and How it Changed the Course of the Israel/Palestine Conflict ($16.00 paper), all from Haymarket Books, http://www.haymarketbooks.org/haymarket/new.
Luc Chounet-Cambas, Negotiating ceasefires, is available from Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue (HD Centre) at: http://www.hdcentre.org/publication.
Robert A. Irwin, Building a Peace System is now available as an e-book via: http://www.ecampus.com/building-peace-system-irwin-robert/bk/9780936391397. It is available free, in full text (searchable by word or phrase) via the Internet. It can be accessed to it by using WorldCat and selecting the “ebook” edition linked through HathiTrust (rather than the Google ebook, which does not offer full text).
The Stanley Foundation publications, often free, include regular Policy Analysis Briefs (recent ones including: “Creating a 21st-Century Nuclear Material Security Architecture;” “The IAEA and Nuclear Security: Trend and Prospects;” and “Sudan and the Implications for Responsibility to Protect”); and the quarterly Courier: Provoking Thought and Encouraging Dialogue About the World, from the Stanley Foundation, 209 Iowa Ave., Muscatine, IA 52761 (563)264-1500, firstname.lastname@example.org, http://www.stanleyfoundation.org.
Chiapas Media Project has produced the film LIVING JUAREZ: Collateral Damage in Mexico’s Drug War, available from Chiapas Media: http://www.promediosmexico.org/eng/index.html.
USEFUL WEB SITES
UN NGO Climate Change Caucus, with numerous task forces, is at: http://climatecaucus.net.
On the Frontlines of Climate Change: A global forum for indigenous peoples, small islands and vulnerable communities can be subscribed to at: http://www.climatefrontlines.org/lists/?p=subscribe. See postings on the website at: http://www.climatefrontlines.org/en-GB/node/148.
Earth Policy Institute, dedicated to building a sustainable future as well as providing a plan of how to get from here to there: www.earthpolicy.org.
Wiser Earth lists more than 10,700 environmental and environmental justice organizations at: http://www.wiserearth.org/organization/
Earthwatch, the world’s largest environmental volunteer organization, founded in 1971, works globally to help the people of the planet volunteer realize a sustainable environment: http://www.earthwatch.org/.
Avaaz.org works internationally on environmental and peace and justice issues: http://www.avaaz.org.
The Environmental Defense Fund works on environmental issues and policy, primarily in the U.S.: http://edf.org.
Earthjustice focuses on environmental issues and action: http://action.earthjustice.org.
The Sierra Club works on environmental issues in the United States: http://action.sierraclub.org.
SaveOurEnvironemnt.org, a coalition of environmental organizations acting politically in the U.S.: http://ga3.org/campaign/0908_endangered_species/xuninw84p7m8mxxm.
The National Resources Defense Council works on a variety of environmental issues in the U.S.: NRhttp://www.nrdconline.org/
Care 2 is concerned about a variety of issues, including the environment: http://www.care2.com/.
Rainmakers Oceania studies possibilities for restoring the natural environment and humanity’s rightful place in it, at: http://rainmakers-ozeania.com/0annexanchorc/about-rainmakers.html.
Green Ships, in fall 2008, was is asking Congress to act to speed the development of new energy efficient ships that can take thousands of trucks off Atlantic and Pacific Coast highways, moving freight up and down the costs with far less carbon emissions and more cheaply: http://www.greenships.org.
Carbon Fund Blog carries climate change news, links to green blogs, and a green resource list, at: http://carbonfund.blogspot.com/2008/03/sky-is-falling.html. Carbon Fund is certifying carbon free products at: http://www.carbonfund.org/site/pages/businesses/category/CarbonFree.
Grist carries environmental news and commentary: http://www.grist.org/news/,
Green Inc. is a new blog from The New York Times devoted to energy and the environment at: greeninc.blogs.nytimes.com.
Planting Peace is, “A Resource Center for news and activities that seek to build a powerful coalition to bring about cooperation and synergy between the peace movement, the climate crisis movement, and the organic community.” Their web site includes extensive links to organizations, articles, videos and books that make the connections, at: http://organicconsumers.org/plantingpeace/index.cfm, Planting Peace is sponsored by the Organic Consumers Association: http://organicconsumers.org/.
The Global Climate Change Campaign: http://www.globalclimatecampaign.org/.
The center for defense information now carries regular reports on Global Warming & International Security at: http://www.cdi.org.
Georgetown University’s Conflict Resolution Program and the United States Institute of Peace (USIP) have created an online database of multimedia resources related to conflict management, as well as best practices for designing and using them at: Peace Media http://peacemedia.usip.org. For information, contact: Dr. Craig Zelizer, Associate Director, Master of Arts in Conflict Resolution, Department of Government, Georgetown University, 3240 Prospect Street, Washington, DC 20007, (202)687-0512, email@example.com, http://conflictresolution.georgetown.edu, http://internationalpeaceandconflict.org.
Global Beat, has been an excellent source of information and further sources for Nonviolent Change, at: http://www.nyu.edu/globalbeat. Global Beat also has an E-mail list serve.
The International Crisis Group (ICG) carries regular reports and sets of recommendations about difficult developing situations around the globe, and has been an extremely helpful source of information and ideas for this journal: http://www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm. ICG also has a regular E-mail report circulation service that can be subscribed to on its web site. The International Crisis Group (ICG) has launched a frequently updated website on “the nexus of issues surrounding Cyprus, Turkey and the European Union,” at: http://www.crisisgroup.org/.
The International Relations Center (IRC): http://www.irc-online.org/.
IMRA – Middle East News and Analysis: http://www.imra.org.il/.
Transcend Africa, provides reports from across Africa at: www.transcendafrica.net.
Americas Program: http://www.cipamericas.org
The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO): http://www.unpo.org/.
Europa World Plus: Europa World/Regional Surveys of the World On Line is at: www.europaworld.com.
Women of Zimbabwe Arise (WOZA http://wozazimbabwe.org/.
The Pulitzer Center, whose mission is to promote in-depth coverage of international affairs, focusing on topics that have been under-reported, mis-reported – or not reported at all: http://www.pulitzercenter.org/.
Association for Conflict Resolution (ACR): www.acr.net.
Peace Voice, a source for thoughtful articles on the world today by Peace Professionals including members of academia and the non-profit sector, Home page is: http://www.peacevoice.info.. To view abstracts of unpublished current offerings, which are available at no charge, go to www.Abstracts.PeaceVoice.info. To view pieces that have been published and are also available for reprint at no charge: http://www.peacevoice.info.
Peace Media publishes a monthly web magazine at: http://peacejournalism.com/ReadArticle.asp?ArticleID=6086
The Open society Institute and the Soros Foundation: http://www.soros.org/
Conciliation Resources (CR) has re-launched its website http://www.c-r.org.
Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue: http://www.hdcentre.org/.
International Peace Bureau (IPB): http://www.ipb.org.
The Institute for Strategic Studies: http://www.iiss.org/publications/armed-conflict-database/.
Peace and Collaborative Development Network “is a free professional networking site to foster dialogue and sharing of resources in international development, conflict resolution, gender mainstreaming, human rights, social entrepreneurship and related fields. Feel free to explore the site content and features”, at: http://www.internationalpeaceandconflict.org/.
World Security Institute and the Center for Defense Information: www.worldsecurityinstitute.org. The World Security Institute (WSI) offers audio podcast programming in its list of interactive communication features at the iTunes Music Store, WSI’s podcasts will include audio recordings of press conferences, panel discussions, and interviews with WSI experts hosted by WSI or in collaboration with other media outlets. Download iTunes at http://www.apple.com/itunes. Find WSI podcasts by searching for “World Security Institute” under the podcast section of the iTunes Music Store, or by clicking this link: http://phobos.apple.com/WebObjects/MZStore.woa/wa/viewPodcast?id=215717216, The WSI Brussels Security Blog aims to continue and expand the efforts of the World Security Institute, Brussels, to inform, stimulate, and shape the debate around the security and defense dilemmas facing Europe and the world, with a view to formulating effective and lasting solutions, posting regular commentary related to: Afghanistan, the Balkans, Darfur, ESDP, Iran, Iraq, Missile Defense, NATO, OSCE, Peace Support Operations, and Terrorism, at: http://wsibrusselsblog.org/.
The Universal Human Rights Index Website is a database for finding information and documents produced by the various components of the UN human rights system. It can easily do searches, by keywords and other methods on inquiry, at: http://www.universalhumanrightsindex.org/.
The Peace and Justice Studies Association (PJSA): http://www.peacejusticestudies.org/.
Psychologists for Social Responsibility (PsySR): http://www.psysr.org.
The International Peace Research Association has a new website, ass of November, 2007: http://www.ipraweb.org.
The International Peace and Conflict Resolution (IPCR) Program a American University web site, including bi-monthly newsletters, is at: newsletter at www.aupeace.org.
Journal of Religion, Conflict, and Peace is at: http://www.religionconflictpeace.org.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Jerusalem 2050 Project: http://envisioningpeace.org.
The Human Rights Campaign (HRC): http://www.hrc.org/.
Nonviolent Peaceforce (NP): http://www.nonviolentpeaceforce.org.
Ikeda Center for Peace, Learning, and Dialogue (formerly the Boston Research Center for the 21st Century), is at: http://www.ikedacenter.org/publications.htm.
The Network of Spiritual Progressives: http://www.spiritualprogressives.org/.
The Baha’i International Community’s journal, One Country: http://www.onecountry.org.
The Stanley Foundation, “brings fresh voices and original ideas to debates on global and regional problems. The foundation seeks a secure peace with freedom and justice, built on world citizenship and effective global governance,” is at: www.stanleyfoundation.org.
Global Peace Hut: http://www.globalpeacehut.org/
Awakening the Dreamer, Changing the Dream runs on line discussions of “the most critical issue and greatest opportunity of our time and what you can do about it,” at: http://www.awakeningthedreamer.org/.
Peace and Collaborative Development Network is at: http://internationalpeaceandconflict.org).
The Network for Peace through Dialogue’s Shaping Our Future program offers online dialogue sessions at: http://networkforpeace.com/Who/quality-dialogue.htm.
The International Journal of Conflict and Violence focuses on one specific topic in each semi-annual on line issue while also including articles on other, unrelated subjects. In the Fall 2007 issue the focus will be on terrorism. The Journal is at: http://www.ijcv.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=14&Itemid=27.
Culture of Peace Online Journal is at: http://www.copoj.ca/.
The Journal of Stellar Peacemaking is at: http://www.jsp.st>http://www.jsp.st.
Peacework Magazine, “Global Thought and Local Action for Nonviolent Social Change” (also in print), published by the American Friends Service Committee – New England, 2161 Mass. Ave., Cambridge, MA 02140 (617)661.6130, firstname.lastname@example.org, is at: www.peaceworkmagazine.org.
Peace Economics, Peace Science and Public Policy is at: http://www.bepress.com/peps.
Jewish Voice for Peace and Jewish Peace News: www.jewishpeacenews.net.
Peace Research: The Canadian Journal of Peace and Conflict Studies is at: http://www.peaceresearch.ca/index.html.
The Canadian Journal of Peace and Conflict Studies is at: http://www.peaceresearch.ca.
Nonviolent Social Change: the Bulletin of the Manchester College Peace Studies Institute, Nonviolent Social Change: the Bulletin of the Manchester College Peace Studies Institute: http://www.manchester.edu/Academics/departments/Peace_Studies/bulletin/index.ht.
The Journal of Aggression, Conflict, and Peace Research is at: http://www.pierprofessional.com/jacprflyer.
Journal of Globalization for The Common Good, dedicated to global cooperation and dialogue, is at: www.commongoodjournal.com.
Globalisation for the Common Good Initiative (GCGI): www.globalisationforthecommongood.info.
Peace Economics, Peace Science and Public Policy (PEPS), is at http://www.bepress.com/peps.
The UN Chronicle: United Nations in a United World is at: www.un.org/chronicle.
Peace Economics, Peace Science and Public Policy is at: http://www.bepress.com/peps.
The Journal of Law and Conflict Resolution (JLCR) is a multidisciplinary peer-reviewed journal published monthly by Academic Journals: http://www.academicjournals.org/JLCR.
The Muslim World Journal of Human Rights (MWJHR) is at: http://www.bepress.com/mwjhr.
The Journal of Religion, Conflict, and Peace is at www.religionconflictpeace.org.
Peace Action is at: http://www.Peace-Action.org
Caucasus Context is at: http://www.worldsecurityinstitute.org/showarticle.cfm?id=218.
The National Conference on Dialogue and Deliberation (NCDD)’s Learning Exchange, as of August 2007 included over 2200 resources, is at: www.thataway.org/exchange/.
The Africa Peace and Conflict Network (APCN) offers open-access publications, including full research papers, Briefings, and a photo journal, at: http://www.africaworkinggroup.org/publications.
The Global Development Briefing, the largest circulation publication designed specifically for international development professionals, is at: www.DevelopmentEx.com.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA), CSO Net – the Civil Society Network: http://www.un.org/ecosoc/csonet.
UN Millennium Development Goals, indicators of levels of success on ending poverty: http://www.mdgmonitor.org/.
Peace and Collaborative Development Networking at: http://internationalpeaceandconflict.ning.com/, is a free professional networking site to encourage interaction between individuals and organizations worldwide involved in development, peace, conflict resolution and related fields.
The Program for the Advancement of Research on Conflict and Collaboration (PARCC) at the Maxwell School of Syracuse University blog, entitled “Conflict and Collaboration” is at: http://conflictandcollaboration.wordpress.com/about/.
International Society for Universal Dialogue: http://www.isud.org.
Ideologies of War and Terrorism Web Site is at: http://www.ideologiesofwar.com/.
H-Net-Peace carries announcements, etc., relating to peace at: http://www.h-net.org/~peace/.
The M. K. Gandhi Institute for Nonviolence, is at University of Rochester, Interfaith Chapel, Box 270501, Rochester, NY 14627 (585)276-3787, email@example.com, gandhiinstitute.org
The Peace Education Center, IIPE, and Global Campaign for Peace Education invite have a global online initiative “the Peace Education Online Communities,” at: http://www.c-i-p-e.org/forum. The Peace Education Online Community is an interactive website that enables members of the global community to communicate and interact with eachother through a number of tools including: online discussions, collaborative working spaces, an updatable calendar of events, member profiles, reports of institutes, the sharing of files and papers including sample curricula and best practices from local communities, and much, much more. This web-based initiative was developed to support the members and participants of the International Institute on Peace Education, Community-based Institutes on Peace Education, and the Global Campaign for Peace Education, and other concerned educators. For more information contact: firstname.lastname@example.org. The Global Campaign for Peace Education Newsletter is usually published as a list serve monthly, with subscription and back issues at: http://www.tc.edu/PeaceEd/newsletter.
The Global Campaign for Peace Education (GCPE) e-newsletter provides a monthly bulletin of GCPE news, events, action alerts and reports of peace education activities and developments from around the world. Back issues of the newsletter are archived online at www.tc.edu/PeaceEd/newsletter. To subscribe via E-mail go to: http://c-i-p-e.org/elist/?p=subscribe&id=2.
Peace Education Research Update One World, Many Peaces features a regular update on published work in peace research, from academic, popular and organizational sources. The March 1, 2010 update gives special focus to peace education at: http://www.oneworldmanypeaces.
The online Encyclopedia of Peace Education is at: http://www.tc.edu/centers/epe/.
The Plowshares site has on it a section for Syllabi from Courses Related to Peace Studies (from various sources) at: http://www.plowsharesproject.org/php/resources/index.php.
L’Escola de Cultura Pau (School for a Culture of Peace) – Teacher Resource offers an interactive resource targeted to teachers interested in promoting conflict transformation and peace education at school at: http://www.escolapau.org/castellano/convivencia/index.htm.
The Organization Development Institute is a nonprofit educational association organized in 1968 to promote a better understanding of and to disseminate information about organization development, at: http://www.odinstitute.org/.